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This book sheds light on the global changes taking place as harbingers of the modern era from a regional perspective focusing on the eastern Mediterranean region, where the pace of conflicts escalated due to the rise of the Ottomans to the forefront of events in the Islamic world, and the imbalance of power. This topic was a milestone. As that time period laid the basis for the events and conflicts of the modern era. The Ottomans in the Near East continued to defend him against the interference of foreign powers until their defeat in the First World War, and the division of Islamic lands among the European colonial powers; Which we suffer from the consequences until today.